Form 31 was issued to individuals who provided a substitute (usually for a cash payment) to serve in his place in the U.S. Army during the Civil War. Many young men of prominent families avoided military service by hiring substitutes. Llewellyn Powers, a Republican, served five terms in the Maine Legislature and was Governor of Maine from 1897 - 1901.
James Feeley, Llewellyn Powers substitute, was paid $300, served in the 11th Regiment of Maine, Company F and survived the war.
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