Maine Memory Network
Maine's Online Museum

Login · My Account · Show Album


 

 
 

Celebrity's Picture: Using Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's Portraits to Observe Historic Changes

Item 4110   info | My Album
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, ca. 1850 / Maine Historical Society

A resource developed through the Longfellow and the Forging of American Identity program

Author: Sandra J. Whitmore, Art Teacher,
South Portland High School, South Portland, Maine
Suggested Grade Level: High school (includes variations for other grade levels)
Subject Area: Art

Learning Objectives:
This slide show samples from extensive collections with regard to a primary theme:

-Contrast original 2-D images (paintings, drawings, photos, cut silhouettes) with their commercially replicated print versions (engravings, lithographs, inked silhouettes), with special attention to artists' interpretations of the poet's personality

The online exhibit suggests three additional themes for contemplation or discussion as well:

-Examine the famous man's aging process and biography through his changing appearance

-Observe changes in the technology of producing nineteenth century portraits demonstrated in commercial printmaking and photography, and link them to changing cultural mores

-Identify some of the more or less obscure artists trying to earn a living through portraiture in New England during Longfellow's lifetime

Overview:
"In the four quarters of the globe, who reads an American book?" Englishman Sydney Smith's 1820 sneer irked Americans, especially writers such as Irving, Cooper, Hawthorne, and Maine?s John Neal, until Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's resounding popularity successfully rebuffed the question. The Bowdoin educated Portland native became the America's first superstar poet, paradoxically loved especially in Britain, even memorialized at Westminster Abbey. He achieved international celebrity with about forty books or translations to his credit between 1830 and 1884, and, like superstars today, his public craved pictures of him. His publishers consequently commissioned Longfellow's portrait more often than his family, and he sat for dozens of original paintings, drawings, and photos during his lifetime, as well as sculptures. Engravers and lithographers printed replicas of the originals as book frontispiece, as illustrations for magazine or newspaper articles, and as post cards or "cabinet" cards handed out to admirers, often autographed. After the poet's death, illustrators continued commercial production of his image for new editions of his writings and coloring books or games such as "Authors," and sculptors commemorated him with busts in Longfellow Schools or full-length figures in town squares. On the simple basis of quantity, the number of reproductions of the Maine native?s image arguably marks him as the country's best-known nineteenth century writer.

TEACHERS can use this presentation to discuss these themes in art, history, English, or humanities classes, or to lead into the following LESSON PLANS. The plans aim for any 9-12 high school studio art class, but they can also be used in any humanities course, such as literature or history. They can be adapted readily for grades 3-8 as well by modifying instructional language, evaluation rubrics, and targeted Maine Learning Results and by selecting materials for appropriate age level.

Downloadable lesson plans (PDF):
1. Now-and-Then Portraits
2. Scherenschnitte/Silhouettes
3. Commercial Illustrations

Historical Source Items to Accompany This Project