Loyalty oath to U.S., Louisiana, 1862
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A certificate attested to by the provost marshal certified that G. Voncharles had taken a loyalty oath to the United States in November 1862. Union forces occupied Louisiana and residents were asked to affirm their loyalty to the United States, or have their property seized because they were not loyal to the U.S. Gen. Benjamin Butler, commander of the Department of the Gulf, required those who did not sign to provide a list of their property -- and be considered enemies.