St. John and Penobscot Rivers map, 1798
In 1798 surveyors and map makers were sent out by the governments of Britain and the United States to determine the northeast boundary line between the two countries. This sketch is part of a collection of maps made to help determine the boundary. It is a copy "taken from one made on Birch Bark by Francis Joseph an Indian with the assistance of other Indians as also the above information of Pleasant Point May 8th 1798 by us Thomas Milledge, Rob Pagan." The map shows an old canoe trail from the Maliseet Indian village of Meductic to Indian Island at Old Town -- an ancient "highway" for Indians and settlers. Indians used the route to trade with the French and English; settlers used it to get to the area. Other place names include: Masaskisias, Madawaska River, Lake Pasahagan, Chepenannot River, Lake Kioxakcik. Francis Joseph Neptune was the chief of the Passamaquoddy Tribe.